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Nginx的https配置记录以及http强制跳转到https的方法

发布时间:2017/12/27 17:57:40 作者: 标签:ssl浏览次数:948

一、Nginx安装(略)

安装的时候需要注意加上 –with-http_ssl_module,因为http_ssl_module不属于Nginx的基本模块。
Nginx安装方法:

# ./configure –user=www –group=www –prefix=/usr/local/nginx –with-http_stub_status_module –with-http_ssl_module
# make && make install

二、生成证书(略)

可以在阿里云申请免费的证书,申请成功后将2个文件上传到nginx目录下,在网站对应的nginx配置文件lisely.com.conf填写相对应的目录。

三、修改Nginx配置

server {
listen 443;
server_name www.lisely.com;
root /var/www/vhosts/www.lisely.com/httpdocs/main/;

将阿里云提示的ssl开头的复制到下面:

ssl on;
ssl_certificate /usr/local/nginx/cert/lisely.pem;
ssl_certificate_key /usr/local/nginx/cert/lisely.key;
ssl_session_timeout 5m;
ssl_protocols SSLv2 SSLv3 TLSv1;
ssl_ciphers HIGH:!aNULL:!MD5;
ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;

access_log /var/www/vhosts/www.lisely.com/logs/clickstream_ssl.log main;
error_log /var/www/vhosts/www.lisely.com/logs/clickstream_error_ssl.log;

if ($remote_addr !~ ^(124.165.97.144|133.110.186.128|133.110.186.88)) {           //对访问的来源ip做白名单限制
rewrite ^.*$ /maintence.php last;
}

location ~ \.php$ {
fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000;
fastcgi_read_timeout 300;
fastcgi_index index.php;
fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME /scripts$fastcgi_script_name;
#include fastcgi_params;
include fastcgi.conf;
}
}

http访问强制跳转到https

网站添加了https证书后,当http方式访问网站时就会报404错误,所以需要做http到https的强制跳转设置.

一、采用nginx的rewrite方法

1) 下面是将所有的http请求通过rewrite重写到https上。例如将所有的www.lisely.com域名的http访问强制跳转到https。下面配置均可以实现:

if ($scheme = http ) {
return 301 https://$host$request_uri;
}

配置1:

server {
listen 80;
server_name www.lisely.com;
index index.html index.php index.htm;

access_log  /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-access.log main;
error_log  /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-error.log;

rewrite ^(.*)$  https://$host$1 permanent;        //这是ngixn早前的写法,现在还可以使用。

location ~ / {
root /var/www/html/8080;
index index.html index.php index.htm;
}
}

上面的跳转配置rewrite ^(.*)$  https://$host$1 permanent;
也可以改为下面
rewrite ^/(.*)$ http://www.lisely.com/$1 permanent;
或者
rewrite ^ http://www.lisely.com$request_uri? permanent;

配置2:

server {
listen 80;
server_name www.lisely.com;
index index.html index.php index.htm;

access_log  /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-access.log main;
error_log  /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-error.log;

return      301 https://$server_name$request_uri;      //这是nginx最新支持的写法

location ~ / {
root /var/www/html/8080;
index index.html index.php index.htm;
}
}

配置3:这种方式适用于多域名的时候

server {
listen 80;
server_name www.lisely.com lisely.com;
index index.html index.php index.htm;

access_log  /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-access.log main;
error_log  /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-error.log;

if ($host ~* “^wangshibo.com$”) {
rewrite ^/(.*)$ https://www.lisely.com/ permanent;
}

location ~ / {
root /var/www/html/8080;
index index.html index.php index.htm;
}
}

配置4:下面是最简单的一种配置

server {
listen 80;
server_name www.lisely.com;
index index.html index.php index.htm;

access_log  /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-access.log main;
error_log  /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-error.log;

if ($host = “www.lisely.com”) {
rewrite ^/(.*)$ http://www.lisely.com permanent;
}

location ~ / {
root /var/www/html/8080;
index index.html index.php index.htm;
}
}

二、采用nginx的497状态码

497 – normal request was sent to HTTPS
解释:当网站只允许https访问时,当用http访问时nginx会报出497错误码

思路:
利用error_page命令将497状态码的链接重定向到https://dev.wangshibo.com这个域名上

配置实例:
如下访问dev.wangshibo.com或者wangshibo.com的http都会被强制跳转到https
server {
listen 80;
server_name dev.wangshibo.com wangshibo.com *.wangshibo.com;
index index.html index.php index.htm;

access_log  /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-access.log main;
error_log  /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-error.log;

error_page 497  https://$host$uri?$args;

location ~ / {
root /var/www/html/8080;
index index.html index.php index.htm;
}
}

也可以将80和443的配置放在一起:
server {
listen       127.0.0.1:443;  #ssl端口
listen       127.0.0.1:80;   #用户习惯用http访问,加上80,后面通过497状态码让它自动跳到443端口
server_name  dev.wangshibo.com;
#为一个server{……}开启ssl支持
ssl                  on;
#指定PEM格式的证书文件
ssl_certificate      /etc/nginx/wangshibo.pem;
#指定PEM格式的私钥文件
ssl_certificate_key  /etc/nginx/wangshibo.key;

#让http请求重定向到https请求
error_page 497  https://$host$uri?$args;

location ~ / {
root /var/www/html/8080;
index index.html index.php index.htm;
}
}

三、利用meta的刷新作用将http跳转到https

上述的方法均会耗费服务器的资源,可以借鉴百度使用的方法:巧妙的利用meta的刷新作用,将http跳转到https
可以基于http://dev.wangshibo.com的虚拟主机路径下写一个index.html,内容就是http向https的跳转

将下面的内容追加到index.html首页文件内
[root@localhost ~]# cat /var/www/html/8080/index.html
<html>
<meta http-equiv=”refresh” content=”0;url=https://www.lisely.com/”>
</html>

[root@localhost ~]# cat /usr/local/nginx/conf/vhosts/test.conf
server {
listen 80;
server_name www.lisely.com lisely.com;
index index.html index.php index.htm;

access_log  /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-access.log main;
error_log  /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-error.log;

#将404的页面重定向到https的首页
error_page  404 https://www.lisely.com/;

location ~ / {
root /var/www/html/8080;
index index.html index.php index.htm;
}
}

下面是nginx反代tomcat,并且http强制跳转至https。
[root@BJLX_34_33_V vhosts]# cat lisely.conf
server {
listen 80;
server_name www.lisely.com;
index index.html index.php index.htm;

access_log  logs/access.log;
error_log   logs/error.log;

return      301 https://$server_name$request_uri;

location ~ / {
root /data/nginx/html;
index index.html index.php index.htm;
}
}

[root@BJLX_34_33_V vhosts]# cat ssl-lisely.conf
upstream tomcat8 {
server 172.29.34.33:8080 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
}

server {
listen 443;
server_name www.lisely.com;
ssl on;

### SSL log files ###
access_log logs/ssl-access.log;
error_log logs/ssl-error.log;

### SSL cert files ###
ssl_certificate ssl/lisely.pem;
ssl_certificate_key ssl/lisely.key;
ssl_session_timeout 5m;

location / {
proxy_pass http://tomcat8/zrx/;
proxy_next_upstream error timeout invalid_header http_500 http_502 http_503;
proxy_set_header Host $host;
proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Proto https;
proxy_redirect off;
}
}

四、通过proxy_redirec方式

解决办法:
# re-write redirects to http as to https, example: /home
proxy_redirect http:// https://;